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Номер заказа
296 983
Создан
27.05.2014
Автор работы
Dance_Lady
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1265 p.
Выполнен
08.07.2014
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10
Примечание
Вот все задания.

The Federal Assembly — the Parliament of the Russian Federation is the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. It consists of two chambers: the Federation Council and the State Duma. The Federa¬tion Council includes two representatives from each constituent entity of the Russian Federation and the State Duma consists of 450 deputies. The Federal Assembly is a permanently functioning body. The Federation Coun¬cil and the State Duma sit separately. Their sessions are open, but they have the right to pass the decision to conduct closed sessions. Each chamber forms committees and commissions to hold appropriate hearings. Both chambers set up the Accounts Chamber to monitor implementation of the federal budget.
Federal laws adopted by the State Duma on the following issues must compulsorily be examined by the Federation Council:
- the federal budget;
- federal taxes and levies;
- financial, currency, credit and customs regulation, money emission;
- ratification and denunciation of international treaties of the Russian Federation;
- the status and protection of the state border of the Russian Federation;
- war and peace.
Federation Council also considers a set of other issues. In particular, it ap-proves decisions on changes of borders between constituent entities and sanc¬tions the introduction of martial law and a state of emergency. Without the Fed¬eration Council approval, military forces cannot be used outside the country. Within its competence, there is appointment and dismissal of the Prosecutor General and judges of the supreme body of the judicial branch, the deputy Chair¬man and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber. Additionally, the Feder¬ation Council has the right of final decision on the impeachment of the President and the announcement of new elections of the President.
The following is within the jurisdiction of the State Duma:
- consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation by the President of the Russian Federation;
- deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;
- appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;
- the Commissioner for Human Rights;
- announcement of amnesty;
- bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment.

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Comprehension

2 Say if it is true or false.
a)The Federal Council doesn't approve decisions on changes of borders between the constituent entities.
b) It is within the competence of the State Duma to appoint and dismiss the Chairman of the Central Bank.
c) The government consists only of the federal ministers.
d) The Chairman's candidate is not to be approved by the State Duma.
e) Should the selected candidate be rejected three times, the President appoints the Prime Minister himself.
f) A draft budget is to be discussed by the State Duma.
g) Measures to ensure state security are carried out by the govern¬ment.

Нужно выполнить упражнения по тексту упражнение 2

теперь 2 задание:

Courts in Russia

1. Read and translate the text. Use the dictionary
Courts and Their Functions
In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modifying, abolish¬ing and applying the law. Usually these take the form of hierarchy of courts. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is strictly defined in relation to other courts. There are two main reasons for variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular kinds of legal ac¬tions. The other is so that a person who feels his case was not fairly treated in a lower court can appeal to a higher court for reassessment. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower courts.
The court is a state body that administers justice on behalf of the state.
There are courts of first instance (original jurisdiction) and second instance (appellate jurisdiction). A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance. A court of original jurisdiction is one which first exam¬ines a case in substance and brings in a sentence or decision. Any court, from the district court to the Supreme Court of the state may sit as a court of first instance. In almost all cases it is possible to appeal to higher court for recon¬sideration of the decision of the original court. A court of second instance is one which examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance.
The Constitutional Court ensures that the laws and other normative acts passed or being considered by the supreme and local legislative branches are constitutional.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, admin¬istrative and other cases under the jurisdiction of common courts. It exercises judicial supervision over the activities in the procedural forms envisaged by federal law and provides interpretation on the issues of court practice. It tries the most important criminal and civil cases and likewise hears appeals against the judgements and sentences of other courts.
The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both crimi¬nal and civil cases. It is also the duty of the district courts to protect the rights of citizens. The higher courts of constituent entities of the Rus¬sian Federation hear and determine cases of major importance. They are courts of appellate jurisdiction.
The Supreme Arbitration Court is the highest judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration; it ex¬ercises judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms en¬visaged by federal law and provides interpretation on issues of court pro¬ceedings.
In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in the trial (the prosecutor, the lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant and the oth¬ers) speak in the open court. The accused is guaranteed the right to defend. The press has the right to be present.
During the hearing of a case any citizen may enter the courtroom and be present during the trial from the beginning to the end. The hearing of cases in closed session is allowed only in exceptional cases. Closed sessions are only allowed if it is in the interests of both sides or for the necessity to keep state secrets. Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed. The judges are independent and they must obey the law.

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Comprehension
1. Are these statements true or false?
a. There are courts of first instance and second instance.
b. A court of first instance examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of other courts.
c. Any court, from the district court to the Supreme Court of the state, may sit as a court of first instance.
d. Higher courts hear and determine cases of major importance.
e. The basic judicial body is the Supreme Court.
f. The decisions of a higher court is binding upon lower courts.
g. The Supreme Court doesn’t hear appeals against the judgements and sentences of other courts.
2.
a. What is the role of each court?
b. What is the function of a court of first instance?
c. What is the basic judicial body of state?
d. What is the function of a court of second instance?
e. What cases does a district court consider?
f. What are the functions of the Supreme Court?
g) What is the status of judges?
h) What are the participants of the trial?

Нужно выполнить упражнения по тексту 1,2, нужно ответить на вопросы по тексту

и 3 задани:

Making laws in Russia
Federal laws adopted by the State Duma are submitted within five days for examination by the Federation Council. A federal law is considered to have been approved by the Federation Council if over a half of the total number of members of that chamber have voted for it or if the Federation Council does not examine it within fourteen days. In the event that the Fed¬eration Council rejects a federal law, the chambers may set up a conciliatory commission to settle differences, after which the federal law shall be recon¬sidered by the State Duma.
In the event that the State Duma disagrees with the decision of the Fed-eration Council a federal law is considered to have been adopted if in the second vote not less than two thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma have voted in favour of it. If the President of the Russian Feder-ation rejects a federal law within fourteen days of receiving it, the State Duma and the Federation Council shall reconsider that law in accordance with the procedure established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. If upon reconsideration the law is approved in the previously adopted wording by a majority of not less than two thirds of the total number of members of the Federation Council and of deputies of the State Duma, it must be signed by the President within seven days and promulgated.

Crime
A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, property and other rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.
Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence, crim¬inal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality. Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those elements characterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method of a crim¬inal action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be consid¬ered guilty of having committed a crime unless several elements of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be continued, and must be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence the court must above all anwer these questions: a) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused?
The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against the social relations taking shape and de-veloping in society. However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has its immediate object-human life, theft-state, collective or per¬sonal property; rowdyism (hooliganism)-public law and order, etc.
A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour of a person, or persons, or by an omission, i.e. the non — performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).
The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsi¬ble for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have reached the age of 16 before the commission of a crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing health, brig¬andage, stealing, robbery, hooliganism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.
Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous act, is non-compos mentis, i.e. is unable to account for his actions or to govern them in consequence of chronic mental desease, temporary mental derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not criminally responsible. Compulsory medical treatment as established by the criminal legislation of the state (placing in a general or special mental hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.

The Government

The Executive power is exercised by the government which consists of the Chairman of the Government (the Prime Minister), deputy chairmen and the federal ministers. The Chairman's candidate is appointed by the Pres¬ident with the consent of the State Duma. Should the selected candidate be rejected three times, the President appoints the Prime Minister himself, dis¬solves the State Duma and announces new elections. Additionally, the Chair¬man of the Government proposes to the President candidates for the posts of deputy chairmen and the other federal ministers.
The government presents a draft budget to be discussed by the State Duma and it provides its implementation and realization of financial, credit and monetary policies. It carries out measures to ensure the legality, rights and freedoms of the citizens, to protect property, public order and combat crimes. It ensures state security, and the realization of foreign policy. The government ensures the implementation of a uniform state policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, social security, health, and ecology.
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вот тут все задания
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Последние отзывы об авторе Dance_Lady
Ирина
Отлично! Спасибо огромное. Работа выполнена раньше намеченного срока. Качественно, точно в соответствии с заданием и моими личными пожеланиями. Еще раз Спасибо!!!
...
2014-05-30 20:53:12
Александра
Все выполнено в срок! Спасибо большое)
...
2014-06-07 21:22:24
Дарья
.
...
2014-06-14 01:06:53